Database Processing Kroenke Review Questions Answers


Database processing is an essential aspect of modern-day businesses as it involves the storage, management, manipulation, and analysis of electronic data. Kroenke's textbook on Database Processing offers an excellent foundation for individuals interested in understanding the "behind the scenes" aspects of database processing. This article will provide comprehensive answers to ten of the crucial review questions posed in the Kroenke textbook.

Question 1: What is a database management system?

A Database Management System (DBMS) is software that enables the creation, management, and use of databases. It provides an interface between the application and the stored data and allows users to perform operations such as query, update, and backup on the data. A DBMS can be relational, hierarchical, network, or object-oriented.

Question 2: What are some of the advantages of using a database system?

The use of a database system has several advantages, including:

- Improved data sharing: A database system allows multiple users to access and modify data simultaneously, enhancing collaboration among teams.
- Data integrity: A DBMS ensures that data is accurate and consistent, reducing errors and discrepancies in data handling.
- Improved security: A DBMS enhances security by controlling access to data using authentication and authorization mechanisms.
- Reduced data redundancy: A DBMS eliminates data redundancy by ensuring that data is stored only once, reducing storage space and minimizing data inconsistencies.
- Improved data consistency: A DBMS automatically maintains data consistency by enforcing data integrity rules and constraints.

Question 3: What is a relational database?

A relational database is a type of database that organizes data into one or more tables consisting of rows and columns. Each table represents an entity or concept in the real world, with the rows representing individual instances of the entity and columns representing the attributes associated with the entity. The relational model uses primary keys to uniquely identify rows in a table and foreign keys to establish relationships between tables.

Question 4: What are the components of a relational database?

A relational database comprises several components, including:

- Tables: Tables are used to organize data into rows and columns.
- Columns: Columns represent attributes associated with entities, and each column has a data type, such as integer, string, or date.
- Rows: Rows represent individual instances of entities and contain values for each attribute.
- Keys: Keys are used to identify unique rows in a table and establish relationships between tables.
- Relationships: Relationships between tables are established using foreign keys that link to primary keys in other tables.

Question 5: What is a data dictionary?

A data dictionary is a component of a DBMS that contains metadata or data about the database itself. It describes the data types, relationships, and constraints associated with the data, providing a blueprint for the database structure. A data dictionary helps maintain data integrity by storing information about the validation rules, defaults, triggers, and constraints associated with each table.

Question 6: What is normalization, and why is it important?

Normalization is a process of organizing database tables to minimize data redundancy and dependency. It involves breaking down tables into smaller tables, thus reducing data duplication and ensuring data consistency. Normalization is essential in managing complex databases because it helps improve query performance by minimizing the storage space required and removing inconsistencies in data.

Question 7: What are some of the common types of database applications?

Some of the common types of database applications include:

- Transaction processing systems: These systems are used to process and manage business transactions, such as sales, orders, and payments.
- Data warehousing: Data warehousing involves collecting and storing large amounts of historical data for analysis and reporting purposes.
- Decision support systems: These systems are used to support decision-making by providing data analysis and reporting tools to users.
- Electronic commerce applications: These applications enable online transactions, such as online shopping carts and payment processing.
- Knowledge management systems: These systems are used to capture and manage knowledge within an organization, allowing users to share information and collaborate on projects.

Question 8: What is SQL, and why is it important in database processing?

SQL (Structured Query Language) is a standard language used to manage relational databases. It allows users to perform various operations on the data, including querying, inserting, updating, and deleting data. SQL is essential in database processing because it enables users to interact with the data stored in the database, enabling the creation of powerful and sophisticated database applications.

Question 9: What is a stored procedure, and how is it different from a trigger?

A stored procedure is a set of SQL statements that are stored and executed on the server-side of the DBMS. It allows users to perform complex operations on data, and it can be called from a database application or another stored procedure. A trigger is a special type of stored procedure that is executed automatically in response to an event, such as an update or delete operation on a table. The key difference between a stored procedure and a trigger is that the former is executed on demand, while the latter is executed automatically in response to a specific event.

Question 10: What is database tuning, and why is it necessary?

Database tuning is a process of optimizing database performance by adjusting various parameters related to database processing. The process involves analyzing the workload and performance metrics of the database and modifying the database configuration to improve performance. Database tuning is necessary because it helps improve the responsiveness of the database to queries and other operations, reducing bottlenecks and improving overall performance.


In conclusion, database processing is an essential aspect of modern-day businesses, and understanding the key concepts is crucial for database administrators and developers. This article has provided comprehensive answers to ten crucial database processing Kroenke review questions, covering topics such as database management systems, relational databases, data dictionaries, normalization, and SQL. It is our hope that this article has helped readers deepen their understanding of database processing concepts and appreciate the importance of proper database processing techniques.